Author + information
- Patric Biaggi, MD⁎,
- Christiane Gruner, MD⁎,
- Sean Jedrzkiewicz, MD⁎,
- Jacek Karski, MD†,
- Massimiliano Meineri, MD†,
- Annette Vegas, MD†,
- Tirone E. David, MD‡,
- Anna Woo, MD, SM⁎ and
- Harry Rakowski, MD⁎,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Address for correspondence:
Dr. Harry Rakowski, Division of Cardiology, Toronto General Hospital, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Eaton North, 4N-504, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada
ASSESSMENT OF MITRAL VALVE ANATOMY by real-time 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has proven to be superior compared to 2-dimensional TEE (1,2). The standard modalities of real-time 3D TEE have recently been described (3). Demonstration of the mitral valve as seen by the surgeon (surgeon's view) with the aortic root at 12 o'clock has gained wide acceptance (Fig. 1A). However, this view may foreshorten the extent of leaflet motion and fail to give the full perspective of the severity of mitral valve prolapse and of the segments involved. Additional perspectives (angled views) reveal important details of both commissures (Figs. 1B and 1D) as well as the posterior leaflet scallops (Fig. 1C) and thereby elucidate the mechanism of mitral regurgitation. Systematic use of these views enables accurate real-time definition of involved segments in both limited (Fig. 2,Online Videos 1 and 2) and complex (Figs. 3, 4, and 5⇓⇓⇓, Online Videos 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8) mitral valve prolapse. It is less time consuming than off-line mitral valve reconstructions and thus more readily available for intraoperative decision making.
The authors have reported that they have no relationships to disclose.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation