Author + information
- Kothandam Sivakumar, MD, DM⁎ (, )
- Anilkumar Singhi, MD and
- Sreeja Pavithran, MD
- ↵⁎Address for correspondence:
Dr. Kothandam Sivakumar, Pediatric Cardiology, MIOT Hospital, 4/112 Mount Poonamalle Road, Chennai 600089, India
pictorial representation of ventricular septal defects on the right ventricular septal surface to guide the surgical or interventional closure was often mentally reconstructed based on multiple 2-dimensional echocardiographic images (1). Three-dimensional imaging was an improvement but needed elaborate post-processing, used nonuniform protocols that sometimes needed deep sedation, and respiratory motion often caused multiple stitch artifacts in full-volume acquisitions. We show an easier real-time method using a uniform subxiphoid live 3-dimensional echocardiographic acquisition (60o × 20o sector width) that is steered to cover the entire interventricular septum and generates good reproducible images in most patients under 10 to 12 years of age. This protocol does not involve major post-processing, and images are available online for interpretation during the time of acquisition. The relation of the defect to various right ventricular septal landmarks such as tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary annuli; proximity of the defect to the anterior, posterior, and apical margins of the interventricular septum; and other landmarks such as septal band are shown on the volume-rendered enface image. This iPIX shows a series of different image sets depicting various types of ventricular septal defects, all of which were acquired using this protocol (Figs. 1 to 6).⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓
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All authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation