Author + information
- Nicole M. Bhave, MD,
- Karima Addetia, MD,
- Kirk T. Spencer, MD,
- Lynn Weinert, RDCS,
- Valluvan Jeevanandam, MD and
- Roberto M. Lang, MD⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Address for Correspondence:
Dr. Roberto M. Lang, Section of Cardiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC5084, Chicago, Illinois 60637
with the advent of real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3d tee), rapid creation of high-quality, true-to-life images of mitral valve anatomy and pathology has become possible in the vast majority of patients (1). In addition to common mitral valve lesions, such as degenerative mitral valve disease, 3D TEE is invaluable for characterizing less frequently encountered disorders, including endocarditis and its complications (2). Precise localization of leaflet perforations can be challenging on 2-dimensional images, particularly for non-experts. While the affected scallop can often be identified with the help of color Doppler, it may be difficult to pinpoint the site of perforation with respect to the leaflet tip. The addition of 3D TEE often provides clarity in this regard, helping to determine the feasibility of surgical repair. In this iPIX, we demonstrate the role of real-time 3D TEE in characterizing mitral leaflet perforations at various sites. Asterisks denote the aorta in all images in Figures 1 to 6⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓.
For supplementary videos and their legends, please see the online version of this article.
Dr. Addetia is supported by a Professional Development Grant awarded by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Dr. Lang has received a research grant from Philips. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation