Author + information
- Received December 7, 2015
- Revision received March 21, 2016
- Accepted March 24, 2016
- Published online July 20, 2016.
- Shafkat Anwar, MDa,∗ (, )
- Gautam K. Singh, MDa,
- Justin Varughese, MSa,
- Hoang Nguyen, MDa,
- Joseph J. Billadello, MDb,
- Elizabeth F. Sheybani, MDc,
- Pamela K. Woodard, MDc,
- Peter Manning, MDd and
- Pirooz Eghtesady, MD, PhDd
- aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- bDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- cMallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- dDivision of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- ↵∗Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Shafkat Anwar, Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, One Children’s Place, Campus Box 8116–NWT, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.
We applied 3-dimensional (3D) printing in patients with congenital heart disease to precisely visualize complex anatomy, plan surgical procedures, and teach trainees and patients. Cases presented range from infants to adults with congenital heart disease. A variety of pathologies are shown, including intracardiac defects, vascular malformations, and airway abnormalities (Figures 1 to 4⇓⇓⇓, Online Videos 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). Data for 3D printing were derived from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic angiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed on a 1.5-T scanner with a 3D respiratory navigated inversion recovery fast low angle shot sequence after administration of blood-pool gadolinium contrast, gadofosveset trisodium (Ablavar, Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, Massachusetts). Contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography was performed on a 128-slice dual-source computed tomographic scanner using high-pitch spiral mode. Segmentation, post-processing, and 3D printing were performed in collaboration with 3D Systems-Healthcare (Golden, Colorado) and were printed on a ProJet 660 color jet printer. Models for the cases that went to surgery were found to be accurate via direct observation in the operating room.
The authors acknowledge Benjamin Johnson and Joseph Fullerton at 3D Systems–Healthcare for their contributions in the design and manufacturing of the 3-dimensional models.
For supplemental videos, please see the online version of this article.
Dr. Woodard has received research support from Bayer and Astellas; and funding from the National Institutes of Health. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received December 7, 2015.
- Revision received March 21, 2016.
- Accepted March 24, 2016.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation