Table 2

Comparison of Baseline Characteristics Among Groups

Group I (n = 16)Group II (n = 41)Group III (n = 12)Group IV (n = 27)Group V (n = 124)p Value
N%n%n%N%n%
Demographic characteristics/ medical history
 Sex, female/male6/1037.5/62.529/1270.7/29.38/466.7/33.319/870.4/29.694/3075.8/24.20.06
 Age, yrs39.2 ± 9.741.3 ± 12.242.2 ± 8.642.6 ± 1144.6 ± 14.40.37
 ETSVS, months48.2 ± 60.326 ± 25.739.6 ± 29.433.3 ± 44.123.6 ± 220.05
 Hypertension425819.518.327.41512.1N/A
 Diabetes mellitus16.3614.6000075.6N/A
 Atrial fibrillation8502151.26501451.96149.20.97
 NYHA functional class I–II/III–IV9/756.3/43.824/1758.5/41.57/558.3/41.715/1255.6/44.474/5059.7/40.30.99
 Stroke or TIA743.81741.5541.710375141.10.99
 Aspirin use318.81024.4216.7622.22923.4N/A
Clinical presentation
 Dyspnea/HF1168.82561866.72074.19576.60.39
 Stroke212.5512.218.327.4118.9N/A
 Loss of valve sound16.337.318.313.732.4N/A
 Angina/ACS16.324.918.327.464.8N/A
 Limb ischemia16.324.90013.710.8N/A
 Asymptomatic0049.818.313.786.5N/A
Thrombosed valve
 Mitral12753585.49752385.210584.70.78
 Aortic318.7614.618.327.497.3N/A
 Tricuspid0000216.727.4108.1N/A
 Mitral + aortic16.300000000N/A
Echocardiographic features
 OT/NOT9/756.3/43.820/2148.8/51.26/650/5014/1351.9/48.156/6845.2/54.80.91
 Monoleaflet/bileaflet7/846.7/53.321/1952.5/47.51/516.7/83.32/209.1/90.99/829.9/90.1N/A
 Mobile THR642.91950436.41140.75947.60.89
 THR area, cm21.17 ± 0.571.05 ± 0.461.37 ± 0.51.15 ± 0.521.12 ± 0.570.49

Values are mean ± SD.

ACS = acute coronary syndrome; HF = heart failure; ETSVS = elapsed time since valve surgery; N/A = not applicable (p value was not calculated due to the low number of events); NOT = nonobstructive thrombus; NYHA = New York Heart Association; OT = obstructive thrombus; PVT = prosthetic valve thrombosis; THR = thrombus; TIA = transient ischemic attack.

  • The majority of patients had a TIA (25.9%), and 15% had stroke.

  • Due to the reduced number of monoleaflet valve replacements in recent years, the number of monoleaflet PVT episodes was relatively low in the chronologically latest treatment groups (Groups IV and V). For this reason, monoleaflet/bileaflet valve numbers were not compared among groups.

  • Data regarding the valve type in 1 episode in Group I were missing.